Sanskrit .dictionary files for Mac OS


Update : 20.07.2019

Original Post:

I was able to convert a few StarDict dictionaries to .dictionary files which are compatible with native dictionary application. These are :
  1. vAchaspatyam-sa (वाचस्पत्यम्)
  2. kalpadruma-sa (शब्दकल्पद्रुमः)
  3. AkhyAtachandrikA (आख्यातचन्द्रिका)
  4. Apte-bi (Dictionary by Apte)
  5. Apte (Dictionary by Apte)
  6. Amara-Onto (अमरकोशः)
  7. Amara-Context2 (अमरकोशः)
  8. Amara-Context (अमरकोशः)
  9. Amara (अमरकोशः)
These will allow to find you any definition of any word which occurs in those dictionaries. It’s a boon for Sanskrit lovers to have these big/bulky dictionaries in digital/searchable form.
  1. Downloadable files are available HERE. Download them.  See the above Github link and download more dictionaries from there.
  2. If you get files with .dictionary extension, then fine. If you get any other compressed format (.7z, .zip, .rar), then un-compress them.
  3. Open Dictionary Application from Launchpad.
  4. Go to menu bar — File > Open Dictionaries Folder
  5. Copy those .dictionary files there by dragging.
  6. Close the Dictionary Folder.
  7. Go to Dictionary Application.
  8. Go to menu bar — Dictionary > Preference
  9. Select your desired dictionaries.
  10. Close (Command+W).
  11. Type Words.
  12. Enjoy.
The base file which was used is located HERE. Thank to Sanskrit-Coders who are developing many Open-Source programs for Sanskrit. The software which was used to convert these is DicUnifier (free). Thanks to the developer
Jiang Jiang. Some StarDict files converted easily, while others were taking ages. So, those which were successfully converted are being put on Mediafire. If some of you succeed to convert those, please share files with us. There are a few benefits of using native application instead of ColorDict/GoldenDict on Mac OS. First, the appearance is very good, clean. Second, it allows you to look up words from many applications. Although we have pop-up option for GoldenDict available, I prefer native application for security reasons too. GoldenDict is not avvailable in AppStore and you need to disable protection to install it. I don’t like this. Please, check these websites for more clarity and help:
  1. David’s Logbook
  2. Amrta
  3. Amrta
  4. Xdxf
Here is a snapshot from the Dictionary Application showing active dictionary files:      

medhA-6 : How to Use

Please, visit this page and download the software and images from the link.

Please, install the software on your PC by double clicking medhA-6.exe(which you downloaded just now).

Open MS Word/Notepad or any similar software.

Press Ctrl+Shift. It will change your keyboard to Sanskrit one(if your installed it correctly and there is no other IME installed).

Now, press each key and test. Watch the printed letter.

Now, keep Shift key pressed and press those keys. Note what letters are being typed.

Now, press AltGr(the Alt key which is on righ hand side of keyboard) and press other keys. Watch letter printed on screen.

Same for Shif+Ctrl key pressed.


Now, look at the images you downloaded. Compare them with the printed text. Are they same? If yes, then OK.

Remembering keys is very easy. We have followed similar sounds to maximum extent. So, you will find क and ख on ‘k’ key; although ख needs press of shift key.

Similar for च, छ, etc.

Some special characters are on IME. They were explained here. The change is in position of those special keys. ‘AltGr+a’ bring  ‘zero width zoiner’, while ‘AltGr+b’ brings ‘zero width non-joiner’.

  • AltGr+z = chandrabindu-virAma(चन्द्रबिन्दु विराम)
  • AltGr+x = udAtta(उदात्त)
  • AltGr+c = anudAtta(अनुदात्त)
  • AltGr+v = combining-macron(योजक)
  • AltGr+b =double-svarita(द्विस्वरित)
  • AltGr+n = tripple-svarita(त्रिस्वरित)

Rest is easy to understand from pictures and the practice I prescribed in beginning.

medhA-6 : Unicode Sanskrit Keyboard Layout

Version 6 of medhA keyboard for Unicode Sanskrit is ready.
It is similar to old version, medhA-3. So, it also follows phonetics. In that way you don’t need to remember most key. They come to you naturally. Previous guides posted at my website and that of svAmI nIlakaNTha will help you.
A few changes :
Alt Gr allows you to type full stop(.), comma(,), Rupee Sign(₹), exclamation(!), etc. and some vaidika signs.
Details are in pictures.
So, from now you don’t need to switch keyboard to English for comma, full stop, etc.Installation package is available here : medha-6.exe.(new link)
A detailed change log may be posted later.

medhA-6 in normal condition (without pressing any additional key)
medhA-6 with Shift key pressed
medhA-6 with AltGr(Right Alt) key pressed
medhA-6 with Shif+Ctrl keys pressed

khaNDana-khaNDa-khAdya with shAradA commentary

khaNDana-khaNDa-khAdya(खण्डनखण्डखाद्यम्) of shrI-harSha(श्रीहर्षः) is studied by advaitin-s after acquiring proficiency in laghu-prasthAna(upaniShad, gItA, brahma-sUtra).
It is dedicated to refute the whole thinking system of naiyAika-s, the followers of gautama(गौतमः).
It goes to an extent where anything said to define anything seems polluted with flaws.

And, the state of things having no perfect definition or marks, is what
vedAntin-s know as anirvachanIyatA(अनिर्वचनीयता). This is the nature of this whole
world and it’s cause – avidyA(अविद्या).
This nature is common to things seen in illusion. So, vedAntin-s call this world illusion.
illusion of any kind is found to be refuted by correct knowledge of it’s
adhisThAna(अधिष्ठानम्), the substratum(the thing which was not known); hence
vedAntin-s say that this illusory world and it’s cause are destroyed and
refuted by knowledge of brahman(which is substratum of this illusion).

khaNDana-khaNDa-khAdyam(खण्डनखण्डखाद्यम्) helps vedAntin-s reach the decision that world
is similar to illusiory things and dream by refuting validity of every
possible definition of things which we grant as real and permanent.

the work was created when technical language of naiyAyika-s(नैयायिकाः) was quite
simple, it refutes only those definitions which were based on that
simple language.

As a result of this treatise the whole logic
system of that time collapsed. This caused naiyAyika-s(नैयायिकाः) to think about
errors in their definitions and the language used. As a result a new
complicated language was born in mithilA(मिथिला). ga~Ngesha-upAdhyAya(गङ्गेश उपाध्यायः) was the
man who first used such language. He is hence known as starter
of a new era of tarka-shAstra(तर्कशास्त्रम्). His famous work is tattva-chintA-maNi(तत्त्वचिन्तामणिः)
which was in a way answer to vedAntin-s(वेदान्ती).

As mere change of language
didn’t cause change in definitions, so vedAntin-s neglected refutation of this new work. Actually, new generation of naiyAyika-s(नैयायिकाः)
came near to vedAntin-s(वेदान्तिनः) while trying to define things more correctly. They reached many
times the same conclusion which was familiar to vedAntin-s(वेदान्तिनः), but to save
themselves from this incapability they named it akhaNDopAdhi(अखण्डोपाधिः).
vedAntin-s(वेदान्तिनः) hence didn’t get bothered.

But, in some places new logics were presented to refute anirvachanIytavam(अनिर्वचनीयत्वम्) and they were not refuted by older vedAntin-s(वेदान्तिनः) properly.
Moreover, some works of shrI-udayanAchArya(उदयनाचार्यः), such as laxaNAvalI(लक्षणावली), were complex in nature and hence became base for new tArkika-s(नव्यतार्किकाः).
all this a scholar paramahaMsa-saMnyAsI(विद्वान् परमहंसः संन्यासी)
shrI-sha~Nkara-chaitanya-bhAratI(स्वामी शङ्करचैतन्यभारती), who was a devI-upAsaka(श्रीविद्योपासकः) and knower of kAshmIra-shaiva-Agama (काश्मीरशैवागमविशारदः), started to write a refutation.

He took
khaNDana-khaNDa-khAdya(खण्डनखण्डखाद्यम्) as base and started to write a commentary on it.
He explained it at places where it was obscure or appeared
wrong.(Actually khaNDana-khaNDa-khAdyam is really such a difficult work
to study for anyone). He adopted language of navya-naiyAyika-s(नव्यनैयायिकाः). While
taking in consideration the refutation of khaNDana(खण्डनखण्डखाद्यम्) by navya-naiyyAyika-s(नव्यनैयायिकाः)
at all places he presented refutation of their amendments(परिष्कारः). They were
mostly the same definitions but with more complex words and assumptions.
So, it took some more space to refute them. New logics presented by
tArkika-s(तार्किकाः) were also refuted by this saMnyAsI(संन्यासी) with his ingenious logics(नूतनोद्भावनाः).
Nothing was left. It was complete in every way.

As the commentary
shAradA(शारदा टीका) also appeared difficult to understand and explain at some
places, the author(शारदाकारः) wrote a sub-commentary called rAjahaMsa(राजहंसः). It’s like
Tup-TikA(टुप्टीका) of shrI-kumArila-bhaTTa(श्रीमान् कुमारिलो भट्टः) in nature.

Both these, shAradA(शारदा) and rAjahaMsa(राजहंसः), were published by apAranAtha-maTha(अपारनाथमठः) of vArANasI(वाराणसी) in 1938-1940. Author(शारदाकारः) himself was the editor. (I heard that author was only 24 years old at that time!!!!)

addition to it, the author wrote an introduction to this book(added in
second volume), titled darshana-sarvasvam(दर्शनसर्वस्वम्), which took shape of another
book in future because of it’s depth and newness of style. Again
the language of this was so difficult that it needed a commentary rAjahaMsa(राजहंसः) by the
author(दर्शनसर्वस्वकारः) himself at some places. Later it was commented by his grand-disciple
shrI-sudhAmshu-shekhara-shAstrI(सुधांशुशेखरशास्त्री). He also translated it and published.
This work was taught at BHU, Varanasi(बनारस हिन्दू विश्वविद्यालय) and
sampUrNAnanda-saMskR^ita-vishvavidyAlaya(सम्पूर्णानन्दसंस्कृतविश्वविद्यालयः) at
AchArya-level(M.A.).(Although, BHU has removed it from it’s syllabus as
they have no capable teacher for it. Shame !!)

An interesting event took place after it was published. shrI-ananta-kR^iShNa-shAstrI(अनन्तकृष्णशास्त्री) saw
it at that time and doubted it’s originality and flawlessness. He said
that such language and work is not possible in present time and this
commentary must be work of some old person which is popularized by the
saMnyAsI in his name. He wrote letter to saMnyAsI and challenged him to
prove his ability. shrI-sha~Nkara-chaitanya-bhAratI(शङ्करचैतन्यभारती) said that he may
come to vArAnasI, but he shouldn’t expect any shAstrArtha(शास्त्रार्थः). Anyway, shAstrI
came to vArAnasI at lalitA-ghATa(ललिताघाट). svAmI met him in the temple of
shrI-rAjarAjeshvarI(राजराजेश्वरीमन्दिरम्)(which is very famous even now). shAstrI asked him to
explain something related to vedAnta. svAmI explained. He again asked.
He again replied. He then said that svAmI is actually capable of
writing such thing. After he showed his contentment, svAmI started to
talk again and showed many errors in his own explanations, which were not
caught by shAstrI. shAstrI was amazed. He prostrated before him and
This is a famous story we know.

As it is already a
long time since it was published, the shAradA(शारदा) was unavailable for many
of us.

The introduction part, darshana-sarvasvam(दर्शनसर्वस्वम्), though got extra
attention of shrI-sudhAmshu-shekhara-shAStrI(सुधांशुशेखरशास्त्री), Retd. Prof. of vedAnta, BHU and
was published with a new sanskrit commnetary and hindi explanation by
shrI-shAstrI. It was also taught at some Universities. So, it withstood

shAradA(शारदा) was not so lucky. In a scenario where
khaNDana-khaNDa-khAdyam(खण्डनखण्डखाद्यम्) is not studied by more than handful people due
to complexity of subject and language, what could we expect about study
of shAradA(शारदा). This lack of study causes absence of demand of book and
hence the book was never published again, until shrI-shAstrI took the
work again.

He started to translate the khaNDana-khaNDa-khAdyam(खण्डनखण्डखाद्यम्)
according to shAradA commentary(शारदा). rAjahaMsa(राजहंसः) of shAradA(शारदा) was published as a
different book in original edition with reference to corresponding pages in the
shAradA-publication. It caused difficulties for AchArya and shiShya-s
both, and probably for Goddess shAradA(देवी शारदा) too as she was bereft of her beloved
rAjahaMsa(राजहंसः). So, shrI-shAstrI took rAjahaMsa(राजहंसः) to shAradA(शारदा) and created a single
book comprising both works.

shAstrI is old and a devotee of
shrI-vishvanAtha(श्रीविश्वनाथः). He spends long time at shrI-vishvanAtha temple, his
guru’s place and upAsanA. So, the translation work was slow.

of the saMnyAsI students of shAradA-kAra(शारदाकारः), shrI gaNeshAnanda jI(स्वामी गणेशानन्दगिरिः), motivated shrI
shAstrI to complete the work sooner and helped in many ways. The first
volume was out within a few years.

shrI-shAstrI was teaching
brahmachArI bhUmAchaitanya(ब्रह्मचारी भूमा चैतन्यः) the recently published first volume and
working on second volume since five years.
Due to his old age and
illness, etc. the second volume took a little long to get completed. It
was just published a few moths ago.

I was excited about it. I thought this post will help shAradA(शारदा) to live long with us in this world. Why I’m saying this ? Because, no more than a few people study or can understand it, and hence it is not required by many. In this case the book is not taken by sellers and purchasers and sits in stores of publisher till destroyed. I’m just wishing to let more scholars and interested people know about it.

Here is a post by svAmI abhiShekachaitanya on darshana-sarvasvam.

Download : medhA-3 (in a single bundle)

swAmI nIlakaNThAnanda giri ji was always a part of development of ‘janani’ and ‘medhA’ keyboard-layouts. I always asked him to help me improve these as he was more involved in devanAgarI typing.
Now, he suggested to make a self-extracting self-installing archive for medhA to get rid of iso-explorers. This was a good idea. I thought to bring it to reality but delayed. So, he created one. I checked it, improved it and it is now made available to all.
Now, what’s its use?
You can install “medhA-3” in less steps and you don’t need additional softwares to extract or open .iso image.
This version is compatible with Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, 8.1 and Windows 10.

Help for medhA-3 is available in hindi at swAmI nIlakaNTha’s blog.

Download “medhA-3”(for new version see below.)

Scheme for medhA-3

Here I present two pictures explaining scheme used to make medhA – 3 keyboard layout. The first one is for normal-state and the other one is for shift-state(when keyboard is used with shift key pressed).

medhA-3 normal
This is medhA – 3 in normal-state.

medhA-3 shift
This is medhA – 3 in shift-state.

Providing this picture is helpful for those who want to develop their own keyboard-layout and for those who want to use my keyboard-layout efficiently, both.
For both groups, I will suggest to go through my previous related posts and this can be done by clicking the “Sanskrit Keybord” menu tab above.
Although pictures presented here are not big enough to make everything clear, there is nothing to worry. Why? Because you will be able to see bigger view by clicking them from my “Public Picasa Web Album”.
Another thing I will like to make clear is that although this keyboard is bearing name Sanskrit Keybord, it is not only for Sanskrit. You will be able to write any language which uses Devanagari script. So, it means you can write Hindi, Marathi, Bhojpuri, Nepali, etc. directly with it. So, it is actually Devanagari-keyboard-layout and not Sanskrit-keyboard-layout.
Then, why am I presenting it with that name? Because I developed it to make me able to write Sanskrit language in Devanagari script. 🙂

“medhA” – keyboard layout for sanskrit

medhA keyboard-layout is a small program which maps Devanagari letters to your conventional keyboard to make you able to write Sanskrit, Hindi, etc. in Devanagari script.


Convert Various Fonts to Unicode

What is Font ?
A font is a set of printable or displayable text characters in a specific style and size.

Types of Fonts
Here I’ll be talking about Unicode Fonts. So, the other type is Non-Unicode. Simple.

Fonts contain a wide range of characters, letters, digits, etc., mapped
into the standard Universal Character Set, derived from many different
languages and scripts from around the world.
Non-Unicode Fonts are specific to a particular language or legacy character set.

Why Conversion of Text written with Non-Unicode Font to Unicode ?
The first answer is choice. And, the cause of choice is their standard.
I had many devanAgarI texts written with Non-Unicode fonts. I started
using Unicode fonts and keyboard supporting them. I was unable to edit
old texts with Unicode supporting keyboard. I had to switch between
different fonts now and then. Even after this exercise what I got was
looking bad. Using different fonts in a single word can’t make you happy
with it’s looks. I’d to choose one of them. I chose Unicode-fonts.

So, Why You Used Non-Unicodes Ever ?
Because Unicode-fonts were unavailable. Or, because I did not know. Or,…ohhh…..many causes. Listen my story :-
few years back I was not much familiar with computing and
sanskrit-hindi-typing. I used to write sanskrit-texts in roman script. I
used “I-TRANS-encoding” for it. (Its a transliteration scheme.) Then the encoded text was converted to devanAgarI script by I-translator. It was a two-step procedure.
At that time I-translator was using font “Sanskrit-99” . So, I had too many Sanskrit-texts written with that font. Its necessary to mention here that it was not an Unicode-font as “Sanskrit 2003” or “Mangal” etc.

So What You Did ?
I searched to get any software able to make my all Non-Unicoded texts Unicoded.

What were your ideas?
transliterate my texts to I-trans encoding and then to Unicoded text
with the help of I-translator. But, I couldn’t do that.
There was no software to convert Non-Unicoded text to I-trans scheme. The new I-translator was supporting conversion of Unicoded devanAgarI text to I-tran scheme. But my texts were not in Unicode-font.

What’s The Solution ?
I went for other search.
This time I found a Google-Group dealing with this problem. It provided a HTML-page to convert font of text from “Sanskrit99” to “Sanskrit 2003”.
I downloaded the page, and tried to convert my texts. And wow….my texts were Unicoded.
checked my text thoroughly and found some less-used ligatures still
Non-Unicoded. So, I edited that HTML page as per my uses and needs. And
now, it was working superb.
Thanks to THAT GOOGLE GROUP. It has many other tools also. One should have a look.
Due to change in policies of Google Groups, all fonts, convertors and other files are stored on Google Sites by Group Moderators.